Art and Philosophy

Ten testable properties of consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology, 11:1144, 2020.  PDF

The chthonic roots of Leonardo da Vinci’s youthful iconography. Incontri (under review).

The fundamental nature of time. Journal for Research in Philosophy and History, 3:(1), 2020. PDF

Portraits of his Daughters, by Thomas Gainsborough. Tyler, C.W. Diatrope Press, 2020.

Illustrated Life of Leonardo da Vinci, by Giorgio Vasari. Tyler, C.W. (Ed.) Diatrope Press, 2019.

The Expanding Universe Illusion. iPerception, 10: PDF (with D. Phillips, D. Heard)

Points of contact between the Stappian philosophy and Emergent Aspect Dualism. Activitas Nervosa Superior 61:6–11, 2019.

The Emergent Aspect Dualism view of Quantum Physics: A new ontology to resolve the complementarity conundrum. Journal of Research in Philosophy and History 1(2):166-182, 2018. PDF

Evidence that Leonardo da Vinci had strabismus. Journal of the American Medical Association, Ophthalmology, 36(11): 1209-13, 2018.

Absolute distance from perspective. Perception 47(6) 581–584, 2018. PDF

Leonardo da Vinci’s world map: On the neglected scope of his global cartographic projections. Cosmos and History: Journal of the International Map Collector’s Society. 149, 21-31, 2017.

Leonardo da Vinci’s world map. Cosmos and History: The Journal of the National Society of Philosophy, 13, 2, 2017.

The Emergent Dualism view of quantum physics and consciousness. Cosmos and History 11, 97-114, 2015.

Gombrich’s Vault of Perception: Do we “really” see straight lines as curved? Art and Perception, 2014. PDF

Application of face encoding to art investigations. Proc. 4th European Workshop on Visual Information Processing (EUVIP) 4, 226-231, 2013.

Null Object: Prolegomena. In NULL OBJECT: Gustav Metzger Thinks about Nothing (Gilchrist B, Joelson J, Eds) Black Dog Publishing: London, 2012.

Chinese perspective as a rational system: relationship to Panofsky’s symbolic form. Chin J Psychol 53, 7-27, 2012. PDF

Did early Renaissance painters trace optically projected images? The conclusion of independent scientists, art historians and artists. In Digital Imaging for Cultural Heritage Preservation, edited by Filippo Stanco, Sebastiano Battiato, Giovanni Gallo, 253––274, CRC Press, 2011 (with David G. Stork, Jacob Collins, Marco Duarte, Yasuo Furuichi, David Kale, Ashutosh Kulkarni, M. Dirk Robinson, Sara Schechner and Nicolas Williams).

How did Leonardo perceive himself? Metric iconography of da Vinci’s self-portraits. Proc SPIE 7527, 1D, 2010.

Darkness and depth in early Renaissance painting. Proc SPIE 7527, 0V, 2010. PDF

Eye-centring in portraits: Reply to McManus & Thomas. Perception 36, 183–188, 2007

Some principles of spatial organization in art. Spatial Vision 20, 509–530, 2007.

Traversing the highwire from Pop to Optical (review of Lichtenstein exhibit). PLoS Biol 3, e136 PDF, 2006.

A horopter for two-point perspective. Proc SPIE, 5006, 306-315, 2005.

Rosetta Stone?: Hockney, Falco and the sources of ‘opticality’ in Lorenzo Lotto’s Husband and Wife. Leonardo 37, 2004.

What makes Mona Lisa smile? Vision Research 44,1493-8, 2004 (with L.L. Kontsevich)

Where art, optics and vision intersect. Perception, 31, 1285-1288, 2002.

The representation of space in 20th century art. Proc SPIE, 3966, 565-577, 2001. (with A. Ione).

Perspective as a geometric tool that launched the Renaissance. Proc SPIE 3959, 492- 497, 2000.

The Renaissance search for vivid depth representations. Proc Jampolsky Festschrift, SKERI Press: San Francisco, 171-176, 2000.

Perspectives: neuroscience. Is art lawful? Science. 285, 673-4,1999.

Painters centre one eye in portraits. Nature, 392, 877-878, 1998.

Eye placement principles in portraits and figure studies of the past two millennia. Proc SPIE, 3299, 431-437, 1998.

The Cartesian Broadway. Perception 27, 253-6, 1998;

Perspective. Entry in Oxford Companion to the Mind Ed. R.L. Gregory, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.

The autostereogram. Proc. S.P.I.E. 1256, 182-197, 1990 (with M.B. Clarke).

Image and Reflection. Review of Eye and Brain (3rd Ed.) by R.L. Gregory. Contemporary Psychology 25, 50-52, 1980.

Computer art. Creative Computing, 88-91, 1976.


Symmetry: modeling the effects of masking noise, axial cueing and salience. PLoS One 5(4):e9840, 2010 (with C.C. Chen).

Face configuration processing in the human brain: the role of symmetry. Cereb Cortex 17:1423-32, 2007 (with CC Chen, KL Kao)

Instantaneous stimulus paradigm: Cortical network and dynamics of figure-ground organization. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, 6492, 2007 (with LT Likova).

Spatial summation of face information. J Vis. 6:1117-25, 2006 (with CC Chen)

Predominantly extra-retinotopic cortical response to pattern symmetry. Neuroimage. 24:306- 14, 2005 (with HA Baseler, LL Kontsevich, LT Likova, AR Wade, BA Wandell).

Symmetry activates extrastriate visual cortex in human and nonhuman primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102:3159-63, 2005 (with Y Sasaki, W Vanduffel, T Knutsen, RH Tootell).

Human symmetry detection exhibits reverse eccentricity scaling. Visual Neuroscience. 16:919-22, 1999.

The structure of perceptual coding. In, Computational and Biological Mechanisms of Visual Coding. Jenkin M., Harris L. (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 131-156, 1997.

Human symmetry perception. In, Human Symmetry Perception and Its Computational Analysis. Tyler CW. (Ed.), VSP: Utrecht, The Netherlands, 3-24, 1996.

Mirror symmetry detection predominance of second-order pattern processing throughout the visual field. In, Human Symmetry Perception and Its Computational Analysis. Tyler CW. (Ed.), VSP: Utrecht, The Netherlands, 157-172, 1996 (with L. Hardage).

Empirical aspects of symmetry perception. Spatial Vision 9, 1-11, 1995.

Multiple mechanisms for the detection of mirror symmetry. Spatial Vision 9, 79-100, 1995 (with L. Hardage, R.T. Miller).

Theoretical issues in symmetry perception. Spatial Vision 8, 383-391, 1994.


Theory of texture discrimination based on higher-order perturbation in individual texture samples. Vision Res. 2179-2186, 2004.

Beyond fourth-order texture discrimination: generation of extreme-order and statistically- balanced textures. Vision Res. 2187-2199, 2004.

Modular organization of adaptive colouration in flounder and cuttlefish revealed b y independent component analysis. Network 14, 321-33, 2003 (with Anderson J.C., Baddeley R.J., Osorio D., Shashar N., Ramachandran V.S., Crook A.C . & Hanlon R.T.).

Occlusions may explain why natural-image spectra fall with frequency squared. Vision Res. 41:955- 964, 2001 (with R. Balboa & N. Grzywacz).

Rapid adaptive camouflage in tropical flounders. Nature 379, 815-817, 1996 (with V.S. Ramachandran, R.L. Gregory, D. Rogers-Ramachandran, S. Duensing, C. Pillsbury, C. Ramachandran).

Induced twinkle aftereffect as a probe of visual processing mechanisms. Vision Res. 35, 757- 766, 1995 (with L. Hardage).

Pattern identification by trajectory analysis in autocorrelation hyperspace. Proc. World Cong. Neural Networks III, 312-316, 1994 (with R.T. Miller).

Visual echoes: The perception of repetition in quasi-random patterns. Vision Res. 17, 109-116, 1977 (with J.J. Chang).

Visual processing of repetitive images. Proc. S.P.I.E. 74, 216-222, 1976 (with J.J. Chang).