Christopher Tyler: Latest Updates

Now Online: Was Leonardo da Vinci’s World Map the First to Name America?

Was Leonardo da Vinci’s World Map the First to Name America? A Quincentennial Reappraisal

Leonardo da Vinci’s World Map, image

Abstract
In addition to his better known artistic, scientific and engineering talents, Leonardo da Vinci has an extensive reputation as a cartographer, drawing maps for a wide range of hydro-engineering projects for the rulers of Florence, Milan, Arezzo and the Vatican, amongst others. However, he is not generally acknowledged as authoring a world map (or mappamundi) spanning the globe, which was the domain of a few specialized cartographers of the era. Nevertheless, there is a world map among his papers in the Royal Library, Windsor, which has the correct overall configuration of the continents, including an ocean at the north pole and a continent at the south pole. Moreover, it has a unique cartographic projection onto eight spherical-geometry triangles that provide close to isometric projection throughout the globe.

This quincentennial anniversary year of his death in 1519 is an appropriate moment for a reappraisal of this contribution to global cartography. Although the authenticity of this world map has been questioned, there is an obscure page of his notebooks in the Codex Atlanticus containing a sketch of this precise form of global projection, tying him securely to its genesis. Moreover, the same notebook page contains sketches of eight other global projections known at that time (early C16th), from the Roman Ptolomaic conic section projection to Rossellli’s (1508) oval planispheric projection. This paper reassesses the dating of Da Vinci’s unique mappamundi to suggest that it predates that of Waldseemüller (1507), and may thus have been the first map to name both America and Florida.

Citation:
Tyler, CW. 2019. “Was Leonardo da Vinci’s World Map the First to Name America? A Quincentennial Reappraisal,” Calafia Journal, 2:7-12. PDF

Lecture: Was Leonardo da Vinci’s World Map the First to Name America?

Was Leonardo da Vinci’s World Map the First to Name America?

by: Christopher W. Tyler, Ph.D., D.Sc.  –  Saturday Sept 28 @ 3:00 PM

Christopher Tyler’s scientific interests are in visual perception and visual neuroscience. With regards to Leonardo da Vinci, Tyler’s interests extend from his youthful activities as an extempore singer and artist’s model in Florence to his architectural and anamorphic influences in the Court of Renaissance France.

image+%281%29.jpgIn addition to his better known artistic, scientific and engineering talents, Leonardo da Vinci has an extensive reputation as a cartographer, drawing maps for a wide range of hydro-engineering projects for the rulers of Florence, Milan, Arezzo and the Vatican, amongst others. However, he is not generally acknowledged as authoring a world map (or mappamundi) spanning the globe, which was the domain of a few specialized cartographers of the era. Nevertheless, there is a world map among his papers in the Royal Library, Windsor, which has the correct overall configuration of the continents, including an ocean at the north pole and a continent at the south pole. Moreover, it has a unique cartographic projection onto eight spherical-geometry triangles that provide close to isometric projection throughout the globe.

This quincentennial anniversary year of his death in 1519 is an appropriate moment for a reappraisal of this contribution to global cartography. Although the authenticity of this world map has been questioned, there is an obscure page of his notebooks in the Codex Atlanticus containing a sketch of this precise form of global projection, tying him securely to its genesis. Moreover, the same notebook page contains sketches of eight other global projections known at that time (early C16th), from the Roman Ptolemaic conic section projection to Rosselli’s (1508) oval planispheric projection. This paper reassesses the dating of Da Vinci’s unique mappamundi to suggest that it predates that of Waldseemüller (1507), and may thus have been the first map in history to name both America and Florida.

Selected Press for Eye centring in selfies posted on Instagram

MedicalResearch.com:
Interview

News 18:
More to the Art: Instagram Users Focus on Centre of Left Eye in Selfies, Says Study

Science Daily:
Do we tend to centre our Instagram selfies on our left eye?

AAAS EurekAlert!:
Do we tend to center our Instagram selfies on our left eye?

LiveMint:
Instagram users tend to snap selfies that centre on left eye.

News-Medical.net:
Eye-centring common in ‘selfie’ photos

University of Liverpool:
Do we tend to centre our Instagram selfies on our left eye?

Daily Mail:
Why selfies usually focus on our left eye: Asymmetry in the brain makes people’s right side less dominant in most Instagram photos, study claims”

Elmundo:
Un estudio explica por qué los selfies se suelen centrar en el ojo izquierdo

 

 

Recent Studies Updates

2019

Eye centring in selfies posted on Instagram. PLoS ONE 14(7): e0218663. (with N Bruno and M Bertamini) PDF (also see MedicalResearch.com interview here

Evidence that Leonardo da Vinci had Strabismus. JAMA Ophthalmol. Jan 1;137(1):82-86, 2019.  PDF (also see links to article coverage.)

Points of contact between the Stappian philosophy and Emergent Aspect Dualism. Activitas Nervosa Superior, 81:1-6, 2019.  PDF

2018

The emergent aspect dualism view of quantum physics: a new ontology to resolve the complementarity conundrum. J Res Phil Hist 1:166–182, 2018. PDF 

Development and validation of a new glaucoma screening test using temporally modulated flicker. 
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 38:617-628, 2018. (with Fidalgo BR, Jindal A, Ctori I, Lawrenson JG.) PDF

A Brücke-Bartley effect for contrast. Roy Soc Open Sci. 5:180171, 2018. eCollection 2018. (with Solomon JA) PDF

Rational approaches to correcting for multiple tests. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging (535) 1-8, 2018. PDF

Scientific Legend of Mona Lisa’s Famous Gaze Debunked

The Mona Lisa effect is that eerie feeling that the eyes of painting are following us. But, according to Gernot Horstmann and Sebastian Loth, of Bielefeld University, Germany, the peepers of Leonardo da Vinci’s masterpiece don’t actually do this at all. Their research, published in iPerception, is available here.

Newsweek’s article on the research includes a comment on this research by Christopher Tyler. Newsweek’s Kashmira Gander notes:

“Professor Christopher Tyler, a visual neuroscientist at City, University of London, U.K., who was not involved in the study, told Newsweek: “It seems very obvious that Mona Lisa is looking to your right, so it does not surprise me that the researchers were able to show that this is how people perceive it.

“What nobody seems to have explained, despite reams of text written on it, is why it works for some front-facing images and not others. My own view is that the key variable is the perceived depth, or 3D impression, of the face.

“When the face seems flat, the eyes following effect should be much less than when it has a lot of depth. I am not aware of any specific test of this hypothesis, however.”

Continue reading “Scientific Legend of Mona Lisa’s Famous Gaze Debunked”